Types of Nutrients and Their Functions

The nutrients required by the human body are the carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamin and Minerals. Different age group requires the different amount of nutrient in another world the daily value of the nutrient varies. It is essential to know about the nutrient needed by our body.
The nutrient value of the child, pregnant women, lactating women, mature individual greatly varies.

Major energy for the sustenance of our body is provided by carbohydrate followed by fat and protein.

Types of Nutrients and Their Functions

 

Carbohydrate

Carbohydrate is essential to produce energy in the body. One gram of the carbohydrate provides 3.87 calories of energy per gram.
The absence of carbohydrate in the infant diet causes the disease often called Marasmus. Lean body characterizes this disease, and the children look like chronic starve. This is due to prolong deficiency of the carbohydrate in the diet. Carbohydrate is made up of carbon, hydrogen and Oxygen atom.
The human body can thrive on the energy from the protein and fat in absence of carbohydrate in the diet. Although extensive research is required to establish the tenets.

Monosaccharide

Monosaccharides are the simple carbohydrate like the glucose in the sugar, fructose in fruits, Lactose in the Milk, etc. A monosaccharide is the building block of the carbohydrate. They are well known to provide rapid energy due to the simple molecule.

Disaccharide

Two joined monosaccharide molecule are called the disaccharide. These include Sucrose, lactose, maltose, trehalose etc., are considered as intermediate between both.

Polysaccharide

The polysaccharide is the complex carbohydrate made up monosaccharide units.
Complex carbohydrate takes the time to digest so release slowly into the bloodstream. Due to this reason consuming complex carbohydrate is essential for healthy living.
Sources
Bread, Rice, Maize, Sugar, Yogurt, potato, fruits etc.,

Glycemic index

This is the index that provides information on the spike on the rapidity and magnitude glucose level of the blood. It means the food with the higher glycemic index quickly spike the blood glucose level is not considered suitable for the consumption.

Daily value

The daily value of the carbohydrate is 300 grams.

Protein

Protein is essential for the vital activities of the body. Protein is used in the manufacture of the enzyme, hormone, bones, muscle, cartilage, skin, blood, etc. The amino acid is the building blog of the protein. An amino acid contains Nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
The chains of the amino acid are bound by the peptide bond and during the process of digestion, the enzyme breaks the peptide bond to facilitate the absorption.

Essential amino acid

This is the amino acid not synthesized by the body so the daily intake is essential.

Non-essential Amino acid

This is the amino acid synthesized in the body. So, the daily intake of the non-essential amino acid is not necessary.

Deficiency

The Deficiency of protein caused Kwashiorkor in the child. A sluggish child with retard mental growth marks this disease.

Sources

Mushroom, eggs, nuts, meat, poultry, fish, vegetables, pulses, etc.

Daily value

The daily value is estimated to be 50 grams.

Fat

Fat is the vital component of the body. Fat acts as the storage and sources of energy. Fat proves the energy and is essential to have adequate intake fat in the diet.

Categories

Unsaturated

Unsaturated fat is those with the carbon atom having one or more double bond.
Those with the multiple bonds are the polyunsaturated unit.

Saturated

Has no double bond between the carbon chains.

Deficiency

Deficiency of fat is associated with varied of the skin problems. The escape of the water from the skin by evaporation can accelerate leading to adverse consequences.

Daily value

The Daily value of the fat is 65 grams. Of which saturate fat comprise of 20 grams.

Vitamins

They can be broadly classified into two types lipid-soluble and water-soluble.

Lipid soluble vitamin

Lipid-soluble vitamins are soluble in fat so the daily intake of this vitamin is not essential. Being the lipid soluble they are retained in the body for the significantly longer period of time. This includes vitamin like Vitamin A, D, E, and K.

Water-soluble vitamin

These are the vitamins that are soluble in water so the daily intake of the vitamin is essential for the normal functioning of the human body. It includes Vitamin C and B complex.

Lipid-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K

Vitamin A

This vitamin is widely known for its ability to produce good vision. It is essential for the growth and development of the immune system in the body. Zinc is essential for the absorption of vitamin A. Deficiency of zinc in diet can impair the absorption process of Vitamin A.

Deficiency

Deficiency of the vitamin A causes difficult in Night vision. Further, the decrease in immunity can be expected.

Sources

Vegetable, yellow color fruits, dairy product, sweet potato, lettuce, liver, fish, bell peppers, carrots, etc.

Daily value

The daily value is estimated to be 5,000 IU (International unit).

Vitamin D

Vitamin D is often known as the sunshine vitamin because they are made in human body upon exposure to the sunshine. Vitamin D is essential for the calcium absorption in the blood.

Deficiency

Deficiency of the vitamin D is characterized by skeletal deformities and soft bones refer to as Rickets.

Sources

Fish, cheese, egg yolks, orange juice, dairy product, soymilk, etc. Exposing the skin to sunshine can automatically synthesize the vitamin in the body.

Requirement

The daily requirement of the vitamin D is less than 530 International Unit (IU).

Vitamin K

Vitamin K is the fat-soluble vitamins that are essential for healing during blood clot. It is also essential for the synthesis of the protein. This is the least known vitamin, as they are not typically used in the dietary supplement. Bacteria present in the gastrointestinal tract normally synthesize this vitamin.

Deficiency

The deficiency of the vitamin K impairs clotting. This problem normally arises in the breastfed infant.

Sources

Almost all the green leafy vegetable has this vitamin, broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, cereals, fish, meat, eggs, etc.

Doses

The requirement of vitamin K is estimated to be around 80 mcg (Micrograms) for an adult.

Water-soluble vitamin C and B complex

Vitamin C

Vitamin c is often referred to as the water-soluble vitamin. Vitamin C is also known as L-ascorbic acid. Due to the water-soluble nature, it gets excreted from the body easily. This requires the daily intake of this vitamin. This vitamin is well known for immunity booster and antioxidant properties.

Deficiency

Deficiency of vitamin c is marked by the disease known as scurvy which is marked by bleeding gums, dull skin, bleeding of the nose, immune impartation, splitting hair, etc.

Sources

Vitamin C is lush in citrus fruits like lemon, orange, broccoli, berries, tomato, papayas, and green leafy vegetable of various types.

Doses

The daily dose of vitamin C is around 60 milligram per day for the mature individual.

B complex

B complex is water-soluble vitamin so the daily intake of this vitamin is essential for the normal function of the human body.
Eight types of B vitamins are collectively referred to as B complex. They are B1, B2, B3, B5, B7, B9, and B12.

They are vital for the liberation of the energy in the body and perform the vital function in the body.

Vitamin B1

Technically B1 is referred to, as thiamine are essential for the adequate cellular functioning of the body. It is vital for producing energy in the body.

Deficiency

Causes beriberi marked by impairment of heart and the nerve especially in the children.

Sources

They are found in nuts, meat, beans, yeast, cereals, etc.

Daily value

It is recommended to take 1.4 milligrams of B1 for the adult every day.

Vitamin B2

Vitamin B2 is technically known as riboflavin. It acts as the strong antioxidant by preventing the adverse attack of free radical in the cell. Further, it helps in mentioning healthy blood cells, immunity booster and metabolism.

Deficiency

The deficiency of the vitamin B2 can produce server adverse health condition. Throat swelling, swollen tongue, skin cracks. Anemia, dermatitis, etc. can be observed.

Sources

The common sources are Almond, tomato, Mushroom, dairy product, liver, Meat etc.

Daily Dose

The requirement of the vitamin B2 varies with the specific age group. Generally, it is estimated that the normal dose of the vitamin B2 is around 1.7 milligram daily.

Vitamin B3

Vitamin B3 is technically referred to as niacin. This is vital for lowering the sugar level in the blood, metabolism of the fat, and control of cholesterol in the blood.

Deficiency

Chronic deficiency causes the depression. The recurring symptoms are diarrhea, mental delusion, etc.

Sources

Peanuts, mushroom, poultry product, grains, liver, etc.

Doses

The dose recommended varies and estimated to be less than 20 milligrams per day.

 

Vitamin B5

Vitamin B5 is technically known as Pantothenic acid. They act as the coenzyme in the production of energy from the body. This is vital for the adequate mentioning of the fat and energy production. It is helpful in the control of cholesterol in the body.

Deficiency

These deficiencies are marked by series of symptoms like insomnia, stomach pain, fatigue, depression, burning feet, upper respiratory tract infection, etc. Although the deficiency of this vitamin is rare.

Sources

Dairy product, salmon, mushroom, sunflower seed, liver, etc.

Dosage

It is recommended around 10 milligrams for the mature individual in the single day.

Vitamin B6

Vitamin B6 is technically referred to as pyridoxine. It is vital for the adequate maintenance of cognitive power, blood flow, movements, etc.

Deficiency

This is marked by the upset in the mood, depression, anxiety, swollen tongue, etc.

Sources

Cereals, poultry, vegetables, Fortified food with vitamin B6.

Daily Value

Around 2 milligrams is recommended for the mature individuals.

Vitamin B7

Vitamin B 7 is commonly referred to as Biotin. This has vital function to mention the healthy nervous system and metabolic process in the body.

Deficiency

Deficiency of vitamin B7 has the series of symptoms that can range from falling the hairs, red rash around different parts of the body. Neurological problems are marked by depression, hallucination, etc.

Sources

Avocado, broccoli, fish, meat, eggs, corn, barley, mushroom, nuts, potatoes, spinach, etc.

Dosage

Around 30 micrograms (Mcg) is recommended for the mature individual in the single day.

Vitamin B9

This vitamin technically refers to as Foliate or folic acid. It is essential for the formation of the new blood cells. This vitamin is vital for the prevention of heart disease and miscarriage during the early stage of pregnancy.

Deficiency

Common symptoms of the deficiency of vitamin are the loss of appetite, poor growth, Diarrhea, irritability, etc.

Sources

Avogadro, green leafy vegetable, okra, broccoli, asparagus, etc.

Dosage

Four hundred microgram is recommended every day.

Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 is technically known as cobalamin. It is essential for the adequate functioning of the brain and the nervous system.

Deficiency

Loss of appetite, diarrhea, weakness, smooth tongue, vision loss, pale skin, etc.

Sources

Fish, poultry, dairy products, Eggs, forfeited foods; Generally, vitamin B12 is not present in the plant sources.

Dosage

Six to ten microgram per day for the mature individual is recommended.

Minerals

These are required in varied amount and perform the essential activities in life. They can be further categorized into two group Macro minerals and micro minerals.

Macrominerals

Calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, sodium, Potassium, chlorine, and sulfur.

Micro Minerals

Iron, manganese, copper, iodine, zinc, cobalt, fluoride, and selenium.
Five major minerals in the human body are Calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and magnesium.

Calcium

Calcium is essential for the normal functioning of the bone. It is vital for the stabilizing of the blood pressure.  

Deficiency

Deficiency is often marked by disease such as osteoporosis.

Sources

Dairy products, meat, green leafy vegetables, cereals, Fish, almond.

Daily Doses

The daily dose of the calcium is one gram for the adult in the single day.

Phosphorous

This is found in conjunction with the calcium in the bone. It performs several functions of the body like the digestion, protein synthesis, repairing teeth and nervous system, balancing hormones, etc.  It comprises roughly one percent of the body weight.

Deficiency

Fragile bone is commonly known as rickets in children.

Sources

Dairy products, beans, nuts, whole grains, fruits and verity of vegetables.

Daily Doses

Like calcium, the daily recommended value of the phosphorous is 1 gram.

Potassium

Potassium is the mineral essential for the ion exchange. For the nerve impulse conduction, the sodium pump and the potassium pump needs to operate simultaneously. This is vital for the sustenance of the life.

Deficiency

Digestive disorder, high blood pressure, infertility, etc.

Sources

It is found in the variety of food sources like Banana, sweet potato, spinach, coconut water, potatoes, beans, spinach, etc.

Daily Doses

The daily recommended value of the Potassium is 3500 milligrams.

Sodium

Sodium is the vital nutrient required for the human body. Sodium helps in the control of blood pressure and maintenance of the muscles and nerves.

Deficiency

Deficiency of the sodium is characterized by Nausea, vomiting, fatigue, muscle spasm, and cognitive disorder. Although the deficiency of the sodium is rare in humans.

Sources

Table salt, dairy products, meats, etc.

Daily value

The Daily Value (DV) of the sodium is around 2,400 milligrams.

Magnesium

Magnesium is vital to balance the calcium in the human body. It is essential for the formation of the bone. It is essential to mention healthy nerve, bone, and muscle. 

Deficiency

Weakness, Nausea, anxiety, calcium deficiency, etc.

Sources

Green leafy vegetable, whole grains, banana, dairy product. Chocolate, etc.

Daily Doses

It is estimated to be around 400 mg.

Iron

Iron is vital for the formation of hemoglobin. It is essential for the effective oxygen transfer in the body.

Deficiency

Deficiency of the iron causes the anemia marked by the decrease in the red blood cell in the blood.

Food source

Poultry, fish, meat, seafood, etc.

Daily Value

The daily value of the iron is estimated to be 18 milligrams.

Zinc

This is vital for boosting the immunity, during the cell division, growth, etc.

Source

Spinach, kidney beans, watermelon seeds,

Daily value

The daily value of the zinc is 15 milligram.

References:

http://myweb.brooklyn.liu.edu/lawrence/che4x/e5chos.pdf

 

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